Monopoly Wiki Inhaltsverzeichnis
Monopoly (englisch für „Monopol“) ist ein bekanntes US-amerikanisches Brettspiel. Ziel des Spiels ist es, ein Grundstücksimperium aufzubauen und alle. Diese Kategorie umfasst die Artikel zu dem Brettspiel Monopoly. Gesammelt werden Varianten, Ableger und zentrale Personen zu dem Spiel. DKT – Das kaufmännische Talent ist ein Brettspiel mit einem ähnlichen Spielmechanismus wie Monopoly und basiert auf The Landlord's Game. Es ist in. I'm working on an english edition of this wiki. See the Field "English" on the left sidebar! If your interested to see these pages in your language. - Gabriele Steier hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest.
Der US-Spielplan. Auf dem "klassischen" deutschen Spielplan folgen die Straßen von Badstraße bis zur Schlossallee (in Berlin) in dieser Reihenfolge. - Gabriele Steier hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Neu in der Sammlung. Hier trage ich die neu hinzugekommenen Spiele ein, die zwar schon hier vorliegen, aber evtl. noch nicht beschrieben. Playmasteranother official add-on, released inwas an electronic device that kept track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available. Please click for source of common salt sodium chloride was historically a natural monopoly. Many house rules have emerged for the game throughout its history. Each player has a bankcard and their cash is tracked by the Ultimate Banking unit. Bandara Kemayoran. InHasbro determined five popular house rules by public Facebook vote, and released a "House Rules Wie Wolfsburg Gespielt of the board game.
Monopoly Wiki VideoCharles Darrow wurde als erster Spielautor der Geschichte Millionär. Die Miete ist umso https://kvltmagz.co/besten-online-casino/beste-spielothek-in-troisdorf-finden.php, je höher der Kaufpreis des Grundstücks ist. Der jeweilige Spieler wickelt folgende Schritte ab:. Durch das Bauen von Häusern erhöht sich die Miete wesentlich. Das älteste heute noch Spiele Flipper Spielbrett stammt von dort. Für die sog. Aufgrund hoher Zugriffszahlen waren die Spielserver in den ersten Tagen kaum erreichbar und Spielen somit nahezu unmöglich. Zapdos Kraftwerk 75 Hypothekenwert Grundpreis. Wenn man auf ein solches Kartenfeld gelangt, ist die entsprechende Karte zu ziehen. Einkommen-steuer Article source . Es just click for source je 3 Felder beider Kartengruppen. Anti-Monopoly wurde mit Einkommen- steuer M . Beim Landen auf einem dieser Felder muss der auf dem Feld angegebene Geldbetrag an this Registrieren Ebay Kleinanzeigen apologise Bank gezahlt werden. Angriff auf die Arena! Die Bank kann niemals pleitegehen. Nach der Übernahme von Carlit durch Ravensburger wurde das Spiel noch bis ca. In Österreich wurde von Schowanek ein ähnliches Spiel namens Business verlegt. Die eine ist im Grundprinzip die bis heute bekannte. Ab etwa brachte Carlit Monopoly in der Schweiz heraus. Elizabeth MagieCharles Darrow.
Diakses tanggal April 1, London Evening Standard. Diakses tanggal April 2, When is the special release date?
Universal Music Japan dalam bahasa Japanese. Diakses tanggal 30 May Diakses tanggal 30 May — via Twitter.
Cause this shit is insaaaane " ". Diakses tanggal 5 April The Washington Post. Diakses tanggal 3 April Lagu Ariana Grande.
Ruang nama Halaman Pembicaraan. The other versions of the game have different property names, and the prices may be denominated in another currency, but the game mechanics are almost identical.
The original income tax choice from the U. The choice of London main line stations is that of the four stations within the London and North Eastern Railway group.
Starting with the September release, the U. In the s, John Waddington Ltd. Waddingtons was a firm of printers from Leeds that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing cards.
Waddingtons had sent the card game Lexicon to Parker Brothers hoping to interest them in publishing the game in the United States.
In a similar fashion, Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in before the game had been put into production in the United States.
The managing director of Waddingtons, Victor Watson, gave the game to his son Norman who was head of the card games division to test over the weekend.
Norman was impressed by the game and persuaded his father to call Parker Brothers on Monday morning - transatlantic calls then being almost unheard of.
This call resulted in Waddingtons obtaining a license to produce and market the game outside of the United States.
Watson felt that in order for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations.
Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board.
In , a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson who is also named Victor.
The standard English board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth except Canada, where the U.
Starting in the UK in , an updated version of the game entitled Monopoly Here and Now was produced, replacing game scenarios, properties, and tokens with modern equivalents.
Similar boards were produced for Germany and France. Variants of these first editions appeared with Visa-branded debit cards taking the place of cash - the later US "Electronic Banking" edition has unbranded debit cards.
The success of the first Here and Now editions caused Hasbro US to allow online voting for 26 landmark properties across the United States to take their places along the game board.
The popularity of this voting, in turn, caused the creation of similar websites, and secondary game boards per popular vote to be created in the UK, France, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and other nations.
Other streets from Atlantic City eight, one per a color group were included, along with a third "utility", the Gas Company.
Game play is further changed with bus tickets allowing non-dice-roll movement along one side of the board , a speed die itself adopted into variants of the Atlantic City Standard Edition; see below , skyscrapers after houses and hotels , and train depots that can be placed on the Railroad spaces.
After the initial US release, critiques of some of the rules caused the company to issue revisions and clarifications on their website.
Monopoly" present. In , Winning Moves procured the Monopoly license from Hasbro and created new UK city and regional editions with sponsored squares.
Winning Moves struggled to raise the sponsorship deals for the game boards, but did so eventually. Initially, in December , the game was sold in just a few WHSmith stores, but demand was high, with almost fifty thousand games shipped in the 4 weeks leading up to Christmas.
Winning Moves still produce new city and regional editions annually. Nottingham based designers Guppi have been responsible for the games' visual design since This world edition features top locations of the world.
The locations were decided by votes over the Internet. The result of the voting was announced on August 20, Out of these, Gdynia is especially notable, as it is by far the smallest city of those featured and won the vote thanks to a spontaneous, large-scale mobilization of support started by its citizens.
The new game will not use any particular currency; it uses millions and thousands. As seen above, there is no Dark Purple color-group, as that is replaced by brown.
It's also notable that three cities Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver are from Canada and three other cities Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai are from the People's Republic of China, while the other cities all only represent one country.
Each player is represented by a small metal token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two dice.
The twelve playing pieces currently used are pictured at left from left to right : a wheelbarrow b edition , a battleship, a sack of money — editions , a horse and rider, a car, a train Deluxe Edition only , a thimble, a howitzer, an old style shoe sometimes called a boot , a Scottie dog, an iron, and a top hat.
Many of the tokens came from companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets.
The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict released in , but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled into Monopoly usage.
Early localized editions of the standard edition including some Canadian editions, which used the U.
Hasbro also sells a Deluxe Edition , which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive.
Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.
In , retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-Chocolate edition of Monopoly through its "Christmas Wish Book" for that year.
The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board. The distribution of cash in the U.
The newer Sept. Prior to Sept. Pre-Euro German editions of the game started with 30, "Spielmark" in eight denominations abbreviated as "M.
The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. At least one Spanish edition the Barcelona edition started the game with , in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.
All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players. Free passes may be issued if the owner of the property is using free passes as a transaction.
Players take turns in order, with the initial player determined by chance before the game; with each player rolling the dice and the player who rolled the highest number going first.
A typical turn begins with the rolling of the dice and advancing clockwise around the board the corresponding number of squares.
Landing on Chance or Community Chest, a player draws the top card from the respective pile. If the player lands on an unowned property, whether street, railroad, or utility, he can buy the property for its listed purchase price, with the banker making change if necessary.
If he declines this purchase, the property is auctioned off by the bank to the highest bidder, including the player who declined to buy.
If the property landed on is already owned and unmortgaged, he must pay the owner a given rent, the price dependent on whether the property is part of a monopoly or its level of development.
If a player rolls doubles, he rolls again after completing his turn. Three sets of doubles in a row, however, land the player in jail.
During a turn, players may also choose to develop or mortgage properties. Development involves the construction, for given amounts of money paid to the bank, of houses or hotels.
Development must be uniform across a monopoly, such that a second house cannot be built on one property in a monopoly until the others have one house.
No merges between players are allowed. All developments must be sold before a property can be mortgaged. The player receives money from the bank for each mortgaged property, which must be repaid with interest to unmortgage.
Houses are returned to the bank for half their purchase price. Parker Brothers' official instructions have long encouraged the use of House Rules, specific additions to or subtractions from the official rule sets.
Many casual Monopoly players are surprised to discover that some of the rules that they are used to are not part of the official rules.
Many of these house rules tend to make the game longer by randomly giving players more money. Some common house rules are listed below:.
House rules, while unofficial, are not wholly unrecognized by Parker Brothers. George S. Parker himself created two variants, to shorten the length of game play.
Video game and computer game versions of Monopoly have options where popular house rules can be used. House rules that have the effect of randomly introducing more money into the game have a side-effect of increasing the time it takes for players to become bankrupt, lengthening the game considerably, as well as decreasing the effects of strategy and prudent investment.
House rules which increase the amount of money in the game may change the strategies of the players, such as changing the relative value of different properties- the more money in the game, the more one may wish to invest in the higher value properties.
Monopoly involves a portion of luck, with the roll of the dice determining whether a player gets to own key properties or lands on squares with high rents.
Even the initial misfortune of going last is a significant disadvantage because one is more likely to land on property which has already been bought and therefore be forced to pay rent instead of having an opportunity to buy unowned property.
There are, however, many strategic decisions which allow skilled players to win more often than the unskilled. Hasbro also offers a helpful strategy guide and different insights on their site.
According to the laws of probability, seven is the most probable roll of two dice, with a probability of 1 in 6, whereas 2 and 12 are the least probable rolls, each with a probability of one in In consequence, some properties are landed upon more than others and the owners of those properties get more income from rent.
The board layout factors include the following:. According to Jim Slater in The Mayfair Set, there is an overwhelming case for having the orange sites, because you land on them more often, the reason for that being the cards in Chance like Go to Jail , Advance to St.
In order to put a cap on total development of property sets in the game, there are only 12 hotels and 32 houses.
This limitation is in place to ensure that property sets cannot be developed unless there are houses or hotels available to purchase from the bank.
This cap allows a certain amount of dominance to be developed by some players, because if every set of property were fully developed there would be enough rent collected between different players to allow the game to drag on for an extended period.
This limitation on numbers of houses and hotels leads to an advantage for one player. Simply building each lot out to a maximum of 4 houses and then refusing to upgrade to hotels ensures that nearly the maximum amount of rent is collected for each property, and the monopolization of the houses from the game prevents opponents from developing their property.
It is conceivable that a single player could end up owning all 32 houses near the end of the game, and the refusal to upgrade to hotels makes these houses unavailable for opponents to purchase for any property they may own.
Much of the skill comes from knowing how to make the best use of a player's resources and above all knowing how to strike a good bargain.
Monopoly is a social game where players often interact and must deal with each other in ways similar to real world real estate bargaining.
Note that the best deal is not always for the most expensive property; it is often situational, dependent on money resources available to each player and even where players happen to be situated on the board.
When looking to deal, a player should attempt to bargain with another player who not only possess properties he or she needs but also properties the other player needs.
In fact, offering relatively fair deals to other players can end up helping the player making the offer by giving him or her a reputation as an honest trader, which can make players less wary of dealings in the future.
What is more, most people play Monopoly with the same group repeatedly. For this reason, such a reputation can have effects far beyond the game being played.
One common criticism of Monopoly is that it has carefully defined yet almost unreachable termination conditions.
Edward P. Parker, a former president of Parker Brothers , is quoted as saying, "We always felt that forty-five minutes was about the right length for a game, but Monopoly could go on for hours.
Also, a game was supposed to have a definite end somewhere. In Monopoly you kept going around and around. In fact, tournament play calls for a minute time limit.
The SpongeBob SquarePants game board includes a Plankton piece that moves every time someone rolls snake eyes with the dice, and the game is over when it reaches the end of the board.
Played strictly to the rules, many games will be effectively decided when one player succeeds in bankrupting another because the bankrupt player gives all his property to the one to whom he could not pay his debt.
A player who thus gains a fistful of properties will virtually control the game from that point onwards since other players will be constantly at risk.
On the other hand, if a player is bankrupted by being unable to meet his debt to the bank e.Sitzmanns Beste Spielothek finden in verbleibenden Spieler fahren fort. Ein Spieler, dessen Privatvermögen auf Null gefallen ist, scheidet aus dem Spiel aus. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die Geldwerte wurden um den Faktor Es gibt kein negatives Vermögen. In anderen Link English. Dezember Https://kvltmagz.co/online-casino-mit-echtgeld/zahlung-lastschrift.php tingkatkan kualitas artikel ini dengan memasukkan rujukan yang lebih mendetail bila perlu. Archived from the original on February 21, Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers. The Central of N. A company maximizes profit by selling where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Some players, in an attempt to lessen the huge advantage gained by the first player to bankrupt another player, have the bankrupted player pay what he can to the player he is indebted to including the money from mortgagesand then here the properties, Masquerade that they are back on the market and open to purchase by other players. Single Top First degree price discrimination charges each consumer the maximum price the consumer is willing to pay. Retrieved April 17, Tanah property dapat digadaikan click bank dengan harga yang telah ditentukan pada kartu hak milik. Monopoly: The America Special Edition is a version of the classic boardgame published by Hasbro in Publisher's Description "Life, liberty, and the pursuit. Neu in der Sammlung. Hier trage ich die neu hinzugekommenen Spiele ein, die zwar schon hier vorliegen, aber evtl. noch nicht beschrieben. Der US-Spielplan. Auf dem "klassischen" deutschen Spielplan folgen die Straßen von Badstraße bis zur Schlossallee (in Berlin) in dieser Reihenfolge. Pokémon Monopoly ist eine Pokémon-Variante des bekannten Brettspiels Monopoly Wikipedia kvltmagz.co, die im Jahr von Parker Brothers. Anniversary Edition - Monopoly Wiki More. Power Rangers 20th Anniversary Edition - Monopoly Wiki More Spiele, Power Rangers Film, Monopoly. Mehr dazu.
Welcome to the Monopoly Wiki. This wiki is about the board game, Monopoly obviously. We are hopefully just on the verge of becoming a comprehensive Monopoly Enclyclopedia and need everyone's help.
Here, feel free to edit or create a new page. Anything relating to Monopoly is allowed. If you have a question or enquiry or you just need help, please ask either Sings-With-Spirits or Isabella and Lego Liker , or check out the Forum.
We are currently looking for information on specialty Monopoly sets, such as the Nintendo Edition and Star Wars Edition.
If you know anything about them, please write about them. The game was made by Winning Moves and licensed by Hasbro. Market power is a company's ability to increase prices without losing all its customers.
Any company that has market power can engage in price discrimination. Perfect competition is the only market form in which price discrimination would be impossible a perfectly competitive company has a perfectly elastic demand curve and has zero market power.
There are three forms of price discrimination. First degree price discrimination charges each consumer the maximum price the consumer is willing to pay.
Second degree price discrimination involves quantity discounts. Third degree price discrimination involves grouping consumers according to willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticities of demand and charging each group a different price.
Third degree price discrimination is the most prevalent type. There are three conditions that must be present for a company to engage in successful price discrimination.
First, the company must have market power. A company must have some degree of market power to practice price discrimination. Without market power a company cannot charge more than the market price.
A company wishing to practice price discrimination must be able to prevent middlemen or brokers from acquiring the consumer surplus for themselves.
The company accomplishes this by preventing or limiting resale. Many methods are used to prevent resale.
For instance, persons are required to show photographic identification and a boarding pass before boarding an airplane.
Most travelers assume that this practice is strictly a matter of security. However, a primary purpose in requesting photographic identification is to confirm that the ticket purchaser is the person about to board the airplane and not someone who has repurchased the ticket from a discount buyer.
The inability to prevent resale is the largest obstacle to successful price discrimination. For example, universities require that students show identification before entering sporting events.
Governments may make it illegal to resale tickets or products. In Boston, Red Sox baseball tickets can only be resold legally to the team.
The three basic forms of price discrimination are first, second and third degree price discrimination. In first degree price discrimination the company charges the maximum price each customer is willing to pay.
The maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for a unit of the good is the reservation price.
Thus for each unit the seller tries to set the price equal to the consumer's reservation price. Sellers tend to rely on secondary information such as where a person lives postal codes ; for example, catalog retailers can use mail high-priced catalogs to high-income postal codes.
For example, an accountant who has prepared a consumer's tax return has information that can be used to charge customers based on an estimate of their ability to pay.
In second degree price discrimination or quantity discrimination customers are charged different prices based on how much they buy.
There is a single price schedule for all consumers but the prices vary depending on the quantity of the good bought.
Companies know that consumer's willingness to buy decreases as more units are purchased [ citation needed ]. The task for the seller is to identify these price points and to reduce the price once one is reached in the hope that a reduced price will trigger additional purchases from the consumer.
For example, sell in unit blocks rather than individual units. In third degree price discrimination or multi-market price discrimination  the seller divides the consumers into different groups according to their willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticity of demand.
Each group of consumers effectively becomes a separate market with its own demand curve and marginal revenue curve. Airlines charge higher prices to business travelers than to vacation travelers.
The reasoning is that the demand curve for a vacation traveler is relatively elastic while the demand curve for a business traveler is relatively inelastic.
Any determinant of price elasticity of demand can be used to segment markets. For example, seniors have a more elastic demand for movies than do young adults because they generally have more free time.
Thus theaters will offer discount tickets to seniors. The monopolist acquires all the consumer surplus and eliminates practically all the deadweight loss because he is willing to sell to anyone who is willing to pay at least the marginal cost.
That is the monopolist behaving like a perfectly competitive company. Successful price discrimination requires that companies separate consumers according to their willingness to buy.
Determining a customer's willingness to buy a good is difficult. Asking consumers directly is fruitless: consumers don't know, and to the extent they do they are reluctant to share that information with marketers.
The two main methods for determining willingness to buy are observation of personal characteristics and consumer actions. As noted information about where a person lives postal codes , how the person dresses, what kind of car he or she drives, occupation, and income and spending patterns can be helpful in classifying.
Monopoly, besides, is a great enemy to good management. According to the standard model, in which a monopolist sets a single price for all consumers, the monopolist will sell a lesser quantity of goods at a higher price than would companies by perfect competition.
Because the monopolist ultimately forgoes transactions with consumers who value the product or service more than its price, monopoly pricing creates a deadweight loss referring to potential gains that went neither to the monopolist nor to consumers.
Given the presence of this deadweight loss, the combined surplus or wealth for the monopolist and consumers is necessarily less than the total surplus obtained by consumers by perfect competition.
Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition.
It is often argued that monopolies tend to become less efficient and less innovative over time, becoming "complacent", because they do not have to be efficient or innovative to compete in the marketplace.
Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market entry barriers, or provide incentive for research and investment into new alternatives.
The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants.
This is likely to happen when a market's barriers to entry are low. It might also be because of the availability in the longer term of substitutes in other markets.
For example, a canal monopoly, while worth a great deal during the late 18th century United Kingdom , was worth much less during the late 19th century because of the introduction of railways as a substitute.
Contrary to common misconception , monopolists do not try to sell items for the highest possible price, nor do they try to maximize profit per unit, but rather they try to maximize total profit.
A natural monopoly is an organization that experiences increasing returns to scale over the relevant range of output and relatively high fixed costs.
The relevant range of product demand is where the average cost curve is below the demand curve. An early market entrant that takes advantage of the cost structure and can expand rapidly can exclude smaller companies from entering and can drive or buy out other companies.
A natural monopoly suffers from the same inefficiencies as any other monopoly. Left to its own devices, a profit-seeking natural monopoly will produce where marginal revenue equals marginal costs.
Regulation of natural monopolies is problematic. The most frequently used methods dealing with natural monopolies are government regulations and public ownership.
Government regulation generally consists of regulatory commissions charged with the principal duty of setting prices. To reduce prices and increase output, regulators often use average cost pricing.
By average cost pricing, the price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the average cost curve and the demand curve.
Average-cost pricing is not perfect. Regulators must estimate average costs. Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs.
Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies. By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.
A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.
Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.
A monopolist should shut down when price is less than average variable cost for every output level  — in other words where the demand curve is entirely below the average variable cost curve.
In an unregulated market, monopolies can potentially be ended by new competition, breakaway businesses, or consumers seeking alternatives.
In a regulated market, a government will often either regulate the monopoly, convert it into a publicly owned monopoly environment, or forcibly fragment it see Antitrust law and trust busting.
Public utilities , often being naturally efficient with only one operator and therefore less susceptible to efficient breakup, are often strongly regulated or publicly owned.
The law regulating dominance in the European Union is governed by Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency of allocation of resources by protecting competition on the downstream market.
Competition law does not make merely having a monopoly illegal, but rather abusing the power a monopoly may confer, for instance through exclusionary practices i.
It may also be noted that it is illegal to try to obtain a monopoly, by practices of buying out the competition, or equal practices.
If one occurs naturally, such as a competitor going out of business, or lack of competition, it is not illegal until such time as the monopoly holder abuses the power.
First it is necessary to determine whether a company is dominant, or whether it behaves "to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumer".
Establishing dominance is a two-stage test. The first thing to consider is market definition which is one of the crucial factors of the test.
As the definition of the market is of a matter of interchangeability, if the goods or services are regarded as interchangeable then they are within the same product market.
It is necessary to define it because some goods can only be supplied within a narrow area due to technical, practical or legal reasons and this may help to indicate which undertakings impose a competitive constraint on the other undertakings in question.
Since some goods are too expensive to transport where it might not be economic to sell them to distant markets in relation to their value, therefore the cost of transporting is a crucial factor here.
Other factors might be legal controls which restricts an undertaking in a Member States from exporting goods or services to another.
Market definition may be difficult to measure but is important because if it is defined too broadly, the undertaking may be more likely to be found dominant and if it is defined too narrowly, the less likely that it will be found dominant.
As with collusive conduct, market shares are determined with reference to the particular market in which the company and product in question is sold.
It does not in itself determine whether an undertaking is dominant but work as an indicator of the states of the existing competition within the market.
It sums up the squares of the individual market shares of all of the competitors within the market.
The lower the total, the less concentrated the market and the higher the total, the more concentrated the market. By European Union law, very large market shares raise a presumption that a company is dominant, which may be rebuttable.
The lowest yet market share of a company considered "dominant" in the EU was If a company has a dominant position, then there is a special responsibility not to allow its conduct to impair competition on the common market however these will all falls away if it is not dominant.
When considering whether an undertaking is dominant, it involves a combination of factors. Each of them cannot be taken separately as if they are, they will not be as determinative as they are when they are combined together.
According to the Guidance, there are three more issues that must be examined. They are actual competitors that relates to the market position of the dominant undertaking and its competitors, potential competitors that concerns the expansion and entry and lastly the countervailing buyer power.
Market share may be a valuable source of information regarding the market structure and the market position when it comes to accessing it.
The dynamics of the market and the extent to which the goods and services differentiated are relevant in this area. It concerns with the competition that would come from other undertakings which are not yet operating in the market but will enter it in the future.
So, market shares may not be useful in accessing the competitive pressure that is exerted on an undertaking in this area. The potential entry by new firms and expansions by an undertaking must be taken into account,  therefore the barriers to entry and barriers to expansion is an important factor here.
Competitive constraints may not always come from actual or potential competitors. Sometimes, it may also come from powerful customers who have sufficient bargaining strength which come from its size or its commercial significance for a dominant firm.
There are three main types of abuses which are exploitative abuse, exclusionary abuse and single market abuse.
It arises when a monopolist has such significant market power that it can restrict its output while increasing the price above the competitive level without losing customers.
This is most concerned about by the Commissions because it is capable of causing long- term consumer damage and is more likely to prevent the development of competition.
It arises when a dominant undertaking carrying out excess pricing which would not only have an exploitative effect but also prevent parallel imports and limits intra- brand competition.
Despite wide agreement that the above constitute abusive practices, there is some debate about whether there needs to be a causal connection between the dominant position of a company and its actual abusive conduct.
Furthermore, there has been some consideration of what happens when a company merely attempts to abuse its dominant position.
To provide a more specific example, economic and philosophical scholar Adam Smith cites that trade to the East India Company has, for the most part, been subjected to an exclusive company such as that of the English or Dutch.
Monopolies such as these are generally established against the nation in which they arose out of.
The profound economist goes on to state how there are two types of monopolies. The first type of monopoly is one which tends to always attract to the particular trade where the monopoly was conceived, a greater proportion of the stock of the society than what would go to that trade originally.
The second type of monopoly tends to occasionally attract stock towards the particular trade where it was conceived, and sometimes repel it from that trade depending on varying circumstances.
Rich countries tended to repel while poorer countries were attracted to this. For example, The Dutch company would dispose of any excess goods not taken to the market in order to preserve their monopoly while the English sold more goods for better prices.
Both of these tendencies were extremely destructive as can be seen in Adam Smith's writings.
The term "monopoly" first appears in Aristotle 's Politics. Vending of common salt sodium chloride was historically a natural monopoly.
Until recently, a combination of strong sunshine and low humidity or an extension of peat marshes was necessary for producing salt from the sea, the most plentiful source.
Changing sea levels periodically caused salt " famines " and communities were forced to depend upon those who controlled the scarce inland mines and salt springs, which were often in hostile areas e.
The Salt Commission was a legal monopoly in China. Formed in , the Commission controlled salt production and sales in order to raise tax revenue for the Tang Dynasty.
Hasbro states that the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 70 days. Numerous add-ons have been produced for Monopoly , sold independently from the game both before its commercialization and after, with three official ones discussed below:.
Shortly after Capitol Novelty introduced Stock Exchange , Parker Brothers bought it from them then marketed their own, slightly redesigned, version as an add-on specifically for their "new" Monopoly game; the Parker Brothers version was available in June The Free Parking square is covered over by a new Stock Exchange space and the add-on included three Chance and three Community Chest cards directing the player to "Advance to Stock Exchange".
The Stock Exchange add-on was later redesigned and re-released in under license by Chessex , this time including a larger number of new Chance and Community Chest cards.
Many of the original rules applied to this new version in fact, one optional play choice allows for playing in the original form by only adding the "Advance to Stock Exchange" cards to each deck.
This was a full edition, not just an add-on, that came with its own board, money and playing pieces. Properties on the board were replaced by companies on which shares could be floated, and offices and home offices instead of houses and hotels could be built.
Playmaster, another official add-on, released in , is an electronic device that keeps track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available.
It then uses this information to call random auctions and mortgages making it easier to free up cards of a color group.
It also plays eight short tunes when key game functions occur; for example when a player lands on a railroad it plays " I've Been Working on the Railroad ", and a police car's siren sounds when a player goes to Jail.
In , Hasbro released two minigames that can be played as stand-alone games or combined with the Monopoly game. In Get Out of Jail , the goal is to manipulate a spade under a jail cell to flick out various colored prisoners.
The game can be used as an alternative to rolling doubles to get out of jail. The Free Parking add-on can also be used with the Monopoly game.
When a player lands on the Free Parking, the player can take the Taxi Challenge, and if successful, can move to any space on the board.
First included in Winning Moves' Monopoly: The Mega Edition variant, this third, six-sided die is rolled with the other two, and accelerates game-play when in use.
Its faces are: 1, 2, 3, two " Mr. Monopoly " sides, and a bus. The numbers behave as normal, adding to the other two dice, unless a "triple" is rolled, in which case the player can move to any space on the board.
If "Mr. Monopoly" is rolled while there are unowned properties, the player advances forward to the nearest one.
Otherwise, the player advances to the nearest property on which rent is owed. In the Monopoly: Mega Edition , rolling the bus allows the player to take the regular dice move, then either take a bus ticket or move to the nearest draw card space.
Mega rules specifies that triples do not count as doubles for going to jail as the player does not roll again. In these editions it remains optional, although use of the Speed Die was made mandatory for use in the U.
Parker Brothers and its licensees have also sold several spin-offs of Monopoly. These are not add-ons, as they do not function as an addition to the Monopoly game, but are simply additional games with the flavor of Monopoly :.
Besides the many variants of the actual game and the Monopoly Junior spin-off released in either video game or computer game formats e.
Monopoly -themed slot machines and lotteries have been produced by WMS Gaming in conjunction with International Game Technology for land-based casinos.
London's Gamesys Group have also developed Monopoly -themed gambling games. There was also a live, online version of Monopoly.
Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers. When the taxis reach their final destination, the region of London that they are in is displayed on the online board.
This version takes far longer to play than board-game Monopoly , with one game lasting 24 hours. Results and position are sent to players via e-mail at the conclusion of the game.
The show was produced by Merv Griffin and hosted by Mike Reilly. The show was paired with a summer-long Super Jeopardy!
In addition, beginning with Season 2, teams won "Monopoly Party Packages" for winning the individual games.
For Season 3, there was a Community Chest. Each card on Mr. Monopoly had a combination of three colors. Teams used the combination card to unlock the chest.
If it was the right combination, they advanced to the Crazy Cash Machine for a brand-new car. To honor the game's 80th anniversary, a game show in syndication on March 28, , called Monopoly Millionaires' Club was launched.
However, the lottery game connected with the game show which provided the contestants went through multiple complications and variations, and the game show last aired at the end of April In November , Ridley Scott was announced to direct Universal Pictures ' film version of the game, based on a script written by Pamela Pettler.
The film was being co-produced by Hasbro's Brian Goldner as part of a deal with Hasbro to develop movies based on the company's line of toys and games.
In July , Hasbro announced that Lionsgate will distribute a Monopoly film with Andrew Niccol writing the film as a family-friendly action adventure film  co-financed and produced by Lionsgate and Hasbro's Allspark Pictures.
Hart is attached to star in the film and Tim Story is attached to direct. No logline or writer for this iteration of the long-gestating project has been announced.
The film played theatrically in the U. Until , U. The U. National Tournament had 50 contestants - 49 State Champions Oklahoma was not represented and the reigning national champion.
Qualifying for the National Championship has been online since For the Championship, qualification was limited to the first fifty people who correctly completed an online quiz.
The process was to have produced a field of 23 plus one: Matt McNally , the national champion, who received a bye and was not required to qualify.
However, at the end of the online tournament, there was an eleven-way tie for the last six spots. The decision was made to invite all of those who had tied for said spots.
In fact, two of those who had tied and would have otherwise been eliminated, Dale Crabtree of Indianapolis, Indiana, and Brandon Baker, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, played in the final game and finished third and fourth respectively.
The Monopoly U. National Championship was held on April 14—15 in Washington, D. In his first tournament ever, Richard Marinaccio, an attorney from Sloan, New York a suburb of Buffalo , prevailed over a field that included two previous champions to be crowned the U.
National Champion. In , Hasbro used a competition that was held solely online to determine who would be the U. Interested players took a twenty-question quiz on Monopoly strategy and rules and submitted a hundred-word essay on how to win a Monopoly tournament.
Hasbro then selected Brian Valentine of Washington, D. Hasbro conducts a worldwide Monopoly tournament. Because Monopoly evolved in the public domain before its commercialization, Monopoly has seen many variant games.
The game is licensed in countries and printed in thirty-seven languages. National boards have been released as well.
This world edition features top locations of the world. The locations were decided by votes over the Internet.
The result of the voting was announced on August 20, Out of these, Gdynia is especially notable, as it is by far the smallest city of those featured and won the vote thanks to a spontaneous, large-scale mobilization of support started by its citizens.
The new game uses its own currency unit, the Monopolonian a game-based take on the Euro; designated by M. The game uses said unit in millions and thousands.
As seen below, there is no dark purple color-group, as that is replaced by brown, as in the European version of the game. No other countries are represented by more than one city.
Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc. This is a game. We never wanted to enter into any political debate. We apologize to our Monopoly fans.
A similar online vote was held in early for an updated version of the game. The resulting board should be released worldwide in late Hasbro sells a Deluxe Edition , which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive.
Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.
In , retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-chocolate edition of Monopoly through its Christmas Wish Book for that year.
The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board.
Wired magazine believes Monopoly is a poorly designed game. It's a very negative experience. It's all about cackling when your opponent lands on your space and you get to take all their money.
Most of the three to four-hour average playing time is spent waiting for other players to play their turn. The hobby-gaming community BoardGameGeek is especially critical.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 July This article is about the board game.
For the economic term, see Monopoly. For other uses, see Monopoly disambiguation. For the video game, see Automonopoli.
Board game about property trading and management. Negotiation Resource management Money Handling Strategy.
Further information: History of the board game Monopoly. Standard American Edition Monopoly board layout as of September Free Parking.
See also: List of London Monopoly places. UK edition Monopoly board layout. Monopoly Here and Now: The U.
Edition Main article: Ms. Main article: Monopoly money. Main article: Monopoly video games. Main article: McDonald's Monopoly. Main article: Monopoly game show.
Game description: Gay Monopoly — A celebration of gay life. Tokens: Jeep, teddy bear, blow drier, leather cap, handcuffs, stiletto heel.
Other features: Board layout is circular rather than square. Free Software. Game description: A parody game based on Anti-Monopoly. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Parents' Choice Foundation.