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Segelschiffsreisen zum Mitsegeln auf dem Windjammer Eye of the Wind. Nord- und Ostsee, Mittelmeer, Karibik und Transatlantik. Hafenfeste & Charterfahrten. Die Eye of the Wind ist ein Juwel unter den letzten original erhaltenen Großseglern unserer Zeit. Informationen über die Geschichte, Daten und Bilder finden Sie. Die Eye of the Wind ist ein zweimastiges Segelschiff vom Typ einer Brigg, die in der Werft C. Lühring als Friedrich vom Stapel lief. In ihrer mehr als. Eye of the Wind - - Rated 5 based on 4 Reviews "What a wonderful, lovely, great, awesome trip we've had from Malaga to Lanzarote! I loved and enjoye ". Mrs Colombo Svevo's experience has in fact enabled her to encapsulate it perfectly: at the moment the report is again in the eye of the storm because we cannot.

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Die Iris Eye of the Tiger ist eine super Neuzüchtung mit extrem auffälligen Blüten durch die bräunlichen Streifen und die blau-violette, goldgelbe Farbe. Eye of the Wind - - Rated 5 based on 4 Reviews "What a wonderful, lovely, great, awesome trip we've had from Malaga to Lanzarote! I loved and enjoye ". The uveal trabecular meshwork cells in a baboon eye subjected to paracentesis for 50 min. Note the loss of cytoplasmic density by comparison with the conrol.

Non-image forming eyes also called direction eyes are found among worms, mollusks, cnidarians, echinoderms, and other invertebrates.

Image-forming eyes are found in certain mollusks, most arthropods, and nearly all vertebrates. Arthropods are unique in possessing a compound eye, which results in their seeing a multiple image that is partially integrated in the brain.

Lower vertebrates, such as fish, have eyes on either side of the head, allowing a maximum view of the surroundings, but producing two separate fields of vision.

In predatory birds and mammals, binocular vision is more important. The placement of both eyes on the front of the head permits a larger overlap of the two visual fields, resulting in a parallel line of direct sight.

Examples of eye in a Sentence Noun Her eyes slowly became accustomed to the dark. He wears a patch over one eye. I have something in my eye.

Only a trained eye can tell the difference between the original painting and a good copy. For decorating, they rely on her discerning eye.

He has an artist's eye for color. He reviewed the proposal with a jaundiced eye. The biographer cast a cold eye on the artist's life.

Verb I saw someone eyeing me from across the street. Devin Nunes of California. We stayed here when others were leaving.

Abbott says tougher anti-COVID restrictions might come back," 23 June Yet competition is likely to stiffen as American tech giants eye the telecoms sector as a launchpad to strengthen their foothold in India's growing digital market.

Send us feedback. By Liz Segre. Notes and References. Schedule an exam Find Eye Doctor. More Articles Eye color: How it develops and why it changes.

How smoking harms your eyes. Checklist for better vision and eye health. Dominant eye test: How to find your dominant eye.

The image perceived is a combination of inputs from the numerous ommatidia individual "eye units" , which are located on a convex surface, thus pointing in slightly different directions.

Compared with simple eyes, compound eyes possess a very large view angle, and can detect fast movement and, in some cases, the polarisation of light.

This can only be countered by increasing lens size and number. Compound eyes fall into two groups: apposition eyes, which form multiple inverted images, and superposition eyes, which form a single erect image.

Apposition eyes are the most common form of eyes and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eyes. They are found in all arthropod groups, although they may have evolved more than once within this phylum.

They are also possessed by Limulus , the horseshoe crab, and there are suggestions that other chelicerates developed their simple eyes by reduction from a compound starting point.

Apposition eyes work by gathering a number of images, one from each eye, and combining them in the brain, with each eye typically contributing a single point of information.

The typical apposition eye has a lens focusing light from one direction on the rhabdom, while light from other directions is absorbed by the dark wall of the ommatidium.

The second type is named the superposition eye. The superposition eye is divided into three types:. The refracting superposition eye has a gap between the lens and the rhabdom, and no side wall.

Each lens takes light at an angle to its axis and reflects it to the same angle on the other side. The result is an image at half the radius of the eye, which is where the tips of the rhabdoms are.

This type of compound eye, for which a minimal size exists below which effective superposition cannot occur, [23] is normally found in nocturnal insects, because it can create images up to times brighter than equivalent apposition eyes, though at the cost of reduced resolution.

Long-bodied decapod crustaceans such as shrimp , prawns , crayfish and lobsters are alone in having reflecting superposition eyes, which also have a transparent gap but use corner mirrors instead of lenses.

This eye type functions by refracting light, then using a parabolic mirror to focus the image; it combines features of superposition and apposition eyes.

Another kind of compound eye, found in males of Order Strepsiptera , employs a series of simple eyes—eyes having one opening that provides light for an entire image-forming retina.

Several of these eyelets together form the strepsipteran compound eye, which is similar to the 'schizochroal' compound eyes of some trilobites.

Because the aperture of an eyelet is larger than the facets of a compound eye, this arrangement allows vision under low light levels.

Good fliers such as flies or honey bees, or prey-catching insects such as praying mantis or dragonflies , have specialised zones of ommatidia organised into a fovea area which gives acute vision.

In the acute zone, the eyes are flattened and the facets larger. The flattening allows more ommatidia to receive light from a spot and therefore higher resolution.

The black spot that can be seen on the compound eyes of such insects, which always seems to look directly at the observer, is called a pseudopupil.

This occurs because the ommatidia which one observes "head-on" along their optical axes absorb the incident light , while those to one side reflect it.

There are some exceptions from the types mentioned above. Some insects have a so-called single lens compound eye, a transitional type which is something between a superposition type of the multi-lens compound eye and the single lens eye found in animals with simple eyes.

Then there is the mysid shrimp, Dioptromysis paucispinosa. The shrimp has an eye of the refracting superposition type, in the rear behind this in each eye there is a single large facet that is three times in diameter the others in the eye and behind this is an enlarged crystalline cone.

This projects an upright image on a specialised retina. The resulting eye is a mixture of a simple eye within a compound eye.

Another version is a compound eye often referred to as "pseudofaceted", as seen in Scutigera. The body of Ophiocoma wendtii , a type of brittle star , is covered with ommatidia, turning its whole skin into a compound eye.

The same is true of many chitons. The tube feet of sea urchins contain photoreceptor proteins, which together act as a compound eye; they lack screening pigments, but can detect the directionality of light by the shadow cast by its opaque body.

The ciliary body is triangular in horizontal section and is coated by a double layer, the ciliary epithelium. The inner layer is transparent and covers the vitreous body, and is continuous from the neural tissue of the retina.

The outer layer is highly pigmented, continuous with the retinal pigment epithelium, and constitutes the cells of the dilator muscle.

The vitreous is the transparent, colourless, gelatinous mass that fills the space between the lens of the eye and the retina lining the back of the eye.

Amazingly, with so little solid matter, it tautly holds the eye. Photoreception is phylogenetically very old, with various theories of phylogenesis.

This is based upon the shared genetic features of all eyes; that is, all modern eyes, varied as they are, have their origins in a proto-eye believed to have evolved some million years ago, [31] [32] [33] and the PAX6 gene is considered a key factor in this.

The majority of the advancements in early eyes are believed to have taken only a few million years to develop, since the first predator to gain true imaging would have touched off an "arms race" [34] among all species that did not flee the photopic environment.

Prey animals and competing predators alike would be at a distinct disadvantage without such capabilities and would be less likely to survive and reproduce.

Hence multiple eye types and subtypes developed in parallel except those of groups, such as the vertebrates, that were only forced into the photopic environment at a late stage.

Eyes in various animals show adaptation to their requirements. For example, the eye of a bird of prey has much greater visual acuity than a human eye , and in some cases can detect ultraviolet radiation.

The different forms of eye in, for example, vertebrates and molluscs are examples of parallel evolution , despite their distant common ancestry.

Phenotypic convergence of the geometry of cephalopod and most vertebrate eyes creates the impression that the vertebrate eye evolved from an imaging cephalopod eye , but this is not the case, as the reversed roles of their respective ciliary and rhabdomeric opsin classes [35] and different lens crystallins show.

The very earliest "eyes", called eye-spots, were simple patches of photoreceptor protein in unicellular animals. In multicellular beings, multicellular eyespots evolved, physically similar to the receptor patches for taste and smell.

These eyespots could only sense ambient brightness: they could distinguish light and dark, but not the direction of the light source.

Through gradual change, the eye-spots of species living in well-lit environments depressed into a shallow "cup" shape. The ability to slightly discriminate directional brightness was achieved by using the angle at which the light hit certain cells to identify the source.

The pit deepened over time, the opening diminished in size, and the number of photoreceptor cells increased, forming an effective pinhole camera that was capable of dimly distinguishing shapes.

This would have led to a somewhat different evolutionary trajectory for the vertebrate eye than for other animal eyes. The thin overgrowth of transparent cells over the eye's aperture, originally formed to prevent damage to the eyespot, allowed the segregated contents of the eye chamber to specialise into a transparent humour that optimised colour filtering, blocked harmful radiation, improved the eye's refractive index , and allowed functionality outside of water.

The transparent protective cells eventually split into two layers, with circulatory fluid in between that allowed wider viewing angles and greater imaging resolution, and the thickness of the transparent layer gradually increased, in most species with the transparent crystallin protein.

The gap between tissue layers naturally formed a biconvex shape, an optimally ideal structure for a normal refractive index.

Independently, a transparent layer and a nontransparent layer split forward from the lens: the cornea and iris.

Separation of the forward layer again formed a humour, the aqueous humour. This increased refractive power and again eased circulatory problems.

Formation of a nontransparent ring allowed more blood vessels, more circulation, and larger eye sizes. Eyes are generally adapted to the environment and life requirements of the organism which bears them.

For instance, the distribution of photoreceptors tends to match the area in which the highest acuity is required, with horizon-scanning organisms, such as those that live on the African plains, having a horizontal line of high-density ganglia, while tree-dwelling creatures which require good all-round vision tend to have a symmetrical distribution of ganglia, with acuity decreasing outwards from the centre.

Of course, for most eye types, it is impossible to diverge from a spherical form, so only the density of optical receptors can be altered.

In organisms with compound eyes, it is the number of ommatidia rather than ganglia that reflects the region of highest data acquisition.

An extension of this concept is that the eyes of predators typically have a zone of very acute vision at their centre, to assist in the identification of prey.

The hyperiid amphipods are deep water animals that feed on organisms above them. Their eyes are almost divided into two, with the upper region thought to be involved in detecting the silhouettes of potential prey—or predators—against the faint light of the sky above.

Accordingly, deeper water hyperiids, where the light against which the silhouettes must be compared is dimmer, have larger "upper-eyes", and may lose the lower portion of their eyes altogether.

Acuity is higher among male organisms that mate in mid-air, as they need to be able to spot and assess potential mates against a very large backdrop.

It is not only the shape of the eye that may be affected by lifestyle. Eyes can be the most visible parts of organisms, and this can act as a pressure on organisms to have more transparent eyes at the cost of function.

Eyes may be mounted on stalks to provide better all-round vision, by lifting them above an organism's carapace; this also allows them to track predators or prey without moving the head.

Visual acuity , or resolving power, is "the ability to distinguish fine detail" and is the property of cone cells. For example, if each pattern is 1.

The highest such number that the eye can resolve as stripes, or distinguish from a grey block, is then the measurement of visual acuity of the eye.

For a human eye with excellent acuity, the maximum theoretical resolution is 50 CPD [42] 1. A rat can resolve only about 1 to 2 CPD.

However, in the compound eye, the resolution is related to the size of individual ommatidia and the distance between neighbouring ommatidia.

Physically these cannot be reduced in size to achieve the acuity seen with single lensed eyes as in mammals.

Compound eyes have a much lower acuity than vertebrate eyes. In primates, geckos, and other organisms, these take the form of cone cells , from which the more sensitive rod cells evolved.

Most organisms with colour vision can detect ultraviolet light. This high energy light can be damaging to receptor cells.

With a few exceptions snakes, placental mammals , most organisms avoid these effects by having absorbent oil droplets around their cone cells.

The alternative, developed by organisms that had lost these oil droplets in the course of evolution, is to make the lens impervious to UV light—this precludes the possibility of any UV light being detected, as it does not even reach the retina.

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The Uvea Of The Eye. The Retina: Where Vision Begins. By Liz Segre. Notes and References. Schedule an exam Find Eye Doctor. More Articles Eye color: How it develops and why it changes.

How smoking harms your eyes. Checklist for better vision and eye health. Dominant eye test: How to find your dominant eye.

Heterochromia: 2 different colored eyes. Anisocoria: Why is one pupil bigger than the other? The vitreous is the transparent, colourless, gelatinous mass that fills the space between the lens of the eye and the retina lining the back of the eye.

Amazingly, with so little solid matter, it tautly holds the eye. Photoreception is phylogenetically very old, with various theories of phylogenesis.

This is based upon the shared genetic features of all eyes; that is, all modern eyes, varied as they are, have their origins in a proto-eye believed to have evolved some million years ago, [31] [32] [33] and the PAX6 gene is considered a key factor in this.

The majority of the advancements in early eyes are believed to have taken only a few million years to develop, since the first predator to gain true imaging would have touched off an "arms race" [34] among all species that did not flee the photopic environment.

Prey animals and competing predators alike would be at a distinct disadvantage without such capabilities and would be less likely to survive and reproduce.

Hence multiple eye types and subtypes developed in parallel except those of groups, such as the vertebrates, that were only forced into the photopic environment at a late stage.

Eyes in various animals show adaptation to their requirements. For example, the eye of a bird of prey has much greater visual acuity than a human eye , and in some cases can detect ultraviolet radiation.

The different forms of eye in, for example, vertebrates and molluscs are examples of parallel evolution , despite their distant common ancestry.

Phenotypic convergence of the geometry of cephalopod and most vertebrate eyes creates the impression that the vertebrate eye evolved from an imaging cephalopod eye , but this is not the case, as the reversed roles of their respective ciliary and rhabdomeric opsin classes [35] and different lens crystallins show.

The very earliest "eyes", called eye-spots, were simple patches of photoreceptor protein in unicellular animals.

In multicellular beings, multicellular eyespots evolved, physically similar to the receptor patches for taste and smell.

These eyespots could only sense ambient brightness: they could distinguish light and dark, but not the direction of the light source.

Through gradual change, the eye-spots of species living in well-lit environments depressed into a shallow "cup" shape. The ability to slightly discriminate directional brightness was achieved by using the angle at which the light hit certain cells to identify the source.

The pit deepened over time, the opening diminished in size, and the number of photoreceptor cells increased, forming an effective pinhole camera that was capable of dimly distinguishing shapes.

This would have led to a somewhat different evolutionary trajectory for the vertebrate eye than for other animal eyes. The thin overgrowth of transparent cells over the eye's aperture, originally formed to prevent damage to the eyespot, allowed the segregated contents of the eye chamber to specialise into a transparent humour that optimised colour filtering, blocked harmful radiation, improved the eye's refractive index , and allowed functionality outside of water.

The transparent protective cells eventually split into two layers, with circulatory fluid in between that allowed wider viewing angles and greater imaging resolution, and the thickness of the transparent layer gradually increased, in most species with the transparent crystallin protein.

The gap between tissue layers naturally formed a biconvex shape, an optimally ideal structure for a normal refractive index.

Independently, a transparent layer and a nontransparent layer split forward from the lens: the cornea and iris. Separation of the forward layer again formed a humour, the aqueous humour.

This increased refractive power and again eased circulatory problems. Formation of a nontransparent ring allowed more blood vessels, more circulation, and larger eye sizes.

Eyes are generally adapted to the environment and life requirements of the organism which bears them. For instance, the distribution of photoreceptors tends to match the area in which the highest acuity is required, with horizon-scanning organisms, such as those that live on the African plains, having a horizontal line of high-density ganglia, while tree-dwelling creatures which require good all-round vision tend to have a symmetrical distribution of ganglia, with acuity decreasing outwards from the centre.

Of course, for most eye types, it is impossible to diverge from a spherical form, so only the density of optical receptors can be altered.

In organisms with compound eyes, it is the number of ommatidia rather than ganglia that reflects the region of highest data acquisition.

An extension of this concept is that the eyes of predators typically have a zone of very acute vision at their centre, to assist in the identification of prey.

The hyperiid amphipods are deep water animals that feed on organisms above them. Their eyes are almost divided into two, with the upper region thought to be involved in detecting the silhouettes of potential prey—or predators—against the faint light of the sky above.

Accordingly, deeper water hyperiids, where the light against which the silhouettes must be compared is dimmer, have larger "upper-eyes", and may lose the lower portion of their eyes altogether.

Acuity is higher among male organisms that mate in mid-air, as they need to be able to spot and assess potential mates against a very large backdrop.

It is not only the shape of the eye that may be affected by lifestyle. Eyes can be the most visible parts of organisms, and this can act as a pressure on organisms to have more transparent eyes at the cost of function.

Eyes may be mounted on stalks to provide better all-round vision, by lifting them above an organism's carapace; this also allows them to track predators or prey without moving the head.

Visual acuity , or resolving power, is "the ability to distinguish fine detail" and is the property of cone cells. For example, if each pattern is 1.

The highest such number that the eye can resolve as stripes, or distinguish from a grey block, is then the measurement of visual acuity of the eye.

For a human eye with excellent acuity, the maximum theoretical resolution is 50 CPD [42] 1. A rat can resolve only about 1 to 2 CPD.

However, in the compound eye, the resolution is related to the size of individual ommatidia and the distance between neighbouring ommatidia.

Physically these cannot be reduced in size to achieve the acuity seen with single lensed eyes as in mammals.

Compound eyes have a much lower acuity than vertebrate eyes. In primates, geckos, and other organisms, these take the form of cone cells , from which the more sensitive rod cells evolved.

Most organisms with colour vision can detect ultraviolet light. This high energy light can be damaging to receptor cells.

With a few exceptions snakes, placental mammals , most organisms avoid these effects by having absorbent oil droplets around their cone cells.

The alternative, developed by organisms that had lost these oil droplets in the course of evolution, is to make the lens impervious to UV light—this precludes the possibility of any UV light being detected, as it does not even reach the retina.

The retina contains two major types of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells used for vision: the rods and the cones.

Rods cannot distinguish colours, but are responsible for low-light scotopic monochrome black-and-white vision; they work well in dim light as they contain a pigment, rhodopsin visual purple , which is sensitive at low light intensity, but saturates at higher photopic intensities.

Rods are distributed throughout the retina but there are none at the fovea and none at the blind spot.

Rod density is greater in the peripheral retina than in the central retina. Cones are responsible for colour vision.

They require brighter light to function than rods require. In humans, there are three types of cones, maximally sensitive to long-wavelength, medium-wavelength, and short-wavelength light often referred to as red, green, and blue, respectively, though the sensitivity peaks are not actually at these colours.

The colour seen is the combined effect of stimuli to, and responses from, these three types of cone cells. Cones are mostly concentrated in and near the fovea.

Only a few are present at the sides of the retina. Objects are seen most sharply in focus when their images fall on the fovea, as when one looks at an object directly.

Cone cells and rods are connected through intermediate cells in the retina to nerve fibres of the optic nerve. When rods and cones are stimulated by light, they connect through adjoining cells within the retina to send an electrical signal to the optic nerve fibres.

The optic nerves send off impulses through these fibres to the brain. The pigment molecules used in the eye are various, but can be used to define the evolutionary distance between different groups, and can also be an aid in determining which are closely related—although problems of convergence do exist.

Opsins are the pigments involved in photoreception. Other pigments, such as melanin, are used to shield the photoreceptor cells from light leaking in from the sides.

The opsin protein group evolved long before the last common ancestor of animals, and has continued to diversify since.

There are two types of opsin involved in vision; c-opsins, which are associated with ciliary-type photoreceptor cells, and r-opsins, associated with rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells.

However, some ganglion cells of vertebrates express r-opsins, suggesting that their ancestors used this pigment in vision, and that remnants survive in the eyes.

They may have been expressed in ciliary cells of larval eyes, which were subsequently resorbed into the brain on metamorphosis to the adult form.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the organ. For the human eye, see Human eye. For the letter, see I.

For other uses, see Eye disambiguation. For other uses, see Eyeball disambiguation , Eyes disambiguation , and Ocular disambiguation.

Organ that detects light and converts it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons. Main article: Compound eye.

Further information: Arthropod eye. Main article: Evolution of the eye. Main article: Colour vision. Annual Review of Neuroscience.

Briscoe National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Retrieved 3 June New York: Oxford University Press. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.

Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology and Ecology. Psychology Press. National Wildlife Magazine. Retrieved Journal of Insect Physiology.

Evolution: Education and Outreach. Bibcode : PNAS.. Acta Zoologica. Bibcode : Sci Current Biology.

Journal of Comparative Physiology. Jan 27, J June Microelectronic Engineering. Archived from the original PDF on Annual Review of Entomology.

Archived from the original PDF on 23 November Retrieved 27 May The evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda Crustacea ".

Contributions to Zoology. Archived from the original on Arthropod Structure and Development. Vision Research.

Lund University. Archived from the original PDF on 9 February Retrieved 13 November Historical Biology. Al-Mutairi The Journal of Experimental Biology.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Autrum ed. Handbook of Sensory Physiology. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Bibcode : PNAS The Crucible of Creation. Lamb; Shaun P. Collin; Edward N. Pugh Jr. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. Tomarev; Rina D.

Zinovieva Bibcode : Natur. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.

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